Meet Keratin!

You have probably heard of keratin before--it is the protein that makes up your hair and nails. It also makes up hooves, antlers, horns, and feathers. It is classified as a filamentous protein (because it forms filaments). Keratin is found in structures such as horns, hooves, and hair. Keratin filaments look a bit like rope …

Meet Rubisco!

Rubisco is found in the chloroplasts of plant cells where it plays a key role in photosynthesis. Rubisco works in the chloroplasts of plant cells Remember that photosynthesis is the process plants (and some bacteria) use to build glucose sugar molecules using CO2 and energy from light. Plants can't just stitch a bunch of raw …

Meet Cas9!

You may have heard of Cas9 before in discussions and news about gene editing with CRISPR! (The two women who established how to use CRISPR-Cas9 in the lab won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.) In nature, CRISPR is a bacterial acquired immune system. It recognizes invading DNA, like from viruses for example, and "saves" …

Meet ATP Synthase!

ATP synthase is a really, really important protein for life. That's because it makes ATP molecules, which are like the energy currency of the molecular world. (Essentially, ATP = Energy!) As you may expect, ATP synthase works in the inner membranes of mitochondria. If mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, ATP synthase is the …

Meet Collagen!

You have more collagen in your body than any other protein. You can find it almost everywhere, but a lot of it lives in your bones, skin, and cartilage. Although collagen is made by your cells, it works outside of the cells. Collagen is a structural protein, and it is the primary protein that forms …

Meet IgG!

IgG is an abbreviation for immunoglobulin G. IgG is in the antibody family of proteins along with IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE. Antibodies are proteins made by immune cells to recognize foreign objects in the body. They are secreted into the blood and circulated throughout the body so they can find those foreign objects. Each …